Motivational salience Motivation as a desire to perform an action is usually defined as having two parts, directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one, as well as the activated "seeking phase" and consummatory "liking phase". This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal gangliaand mesolimbic, dopaminergic pathways. Activated "seeking" behavior, such as locomotor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, and microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward. Opioid injections in this area produce pleasure, however outside of these hedonic hotspots they create an increased desire.
His rework is called as ERG theory of motivation. Existence needs- These include need for basic material necessities. Growth needs- These include need for self-development and personal growth and advancement. The significance of the three classes of needs may vary for each individual.
ERG Theory also shows that if the fulfillment of a higher-level need is subdued, there is an increase in desire for satisfying a lower-level need. According to Maslow, an individual remains at a particular need level until that need is satisfied.
While according to ERG theory, if a higher- level need aggravates, an individual may revert to increase the satisfaction of a lower- level need. This is called frustration- regression aspect of ERG theory.
For instance- when growth need aggravates, then an individual might be motivated to accomplish the relatedness need and if there are issues in accomplishing relatedness needs, then he might be motivated by the existence needs.
According to Alderfer, an individual can work on growth needs even if his existence or relatedness needs remain unsatisfied. Implications of the ERG Theory Managers must understand that an employee has various needs that must be satisfied at the same time.
According to the ERG theory, if the manager concentrates solely on one need at a time, this will not effectively motivate the employee.
Also, the frustration- regression aspect of ERG Theory has an added effect on workplace motivation.
For instance- if an employee is not provided with growth and advancement opportunities in an organization, he might revert to the relatedness need such as socializing needs and to meet those socializing needs, if the environment or circumstances do not permit, he might revert to the need for money to fulfill those socializing needs.
The sooner the manager realizes and discovers this, the more immediate steps they will take to fulfill those needs which are frustrated until such time that the employee can again pursue growth.Equity theory in business, however, introduces the concept of social comparison, whereby employees evaluate their own input/output ratios based on their comparison with the input/outcome ratios of other employees (Carrell and Dittrich, ).
Early model of change process theory, developed by pyschologist Kurt Lewin, described three stages for change: Unfreezing, Moving, Refreezing.
Unfreezing Creates the motivation for change by identifying and communicating the need for change.
A difference between Maslow's need hierarchy and Alderfer's ERG theory is that: A. Maslow's theory states several needs can be satisfied at the same time, whereas Alderfer's ERG theory follows a . Unlike Maslow’s model, the ERG theory includes a frustration-regression process for those who are unable to satisfy a higher need become frustrated and regress to the next lower need level.
Alderfer's ERG theory also states that more than one need may be influential at the same time. A person can for instance be working on growth although existence or relatedness cravings are not satisfied, or, all three cravings can be operating at once.
Expectancy Theory of Motivation The expectancy theory was proposed by Victor Vroom of Yale School of Management in Vroom stresses and focuses on outcomes, .