Baroque art is less obscure and more daring than the art of Mannerism. It is so dramatic that it often borders with theatricality, and its appeal rarely fails to connect with the human senses and emotions, its language is one of contrasts, of opposing ideas, different and innovative ways of approaching light and proportions of spaces and objects.
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Renaissance architects moved away from the intricacy and verticality of the Gothic architecture style in favor of the simplicity and balanced proportions of classicism. The classical orders were revived, including rounded arches and domes; this was done through observation of Roman ruins and study of the treatise Ten Books on Architecture, written by Roman architect Vitruvius.
Renaissance architecture features planar classicism, in which the walls of a Renaissance building are adorned with columns, pilasters, pediments, and blind arches of a minor physical depth so as to not intrude on the two-dimensional appearance of the walls.
Renaissance architecture also divides a wall into neat sections using columns, pilasters, and stringcourses. Indeed, a building done in the Renaissance style consists of many similar sections so as to not draw the eye to a particular part of the building.
The major Renaissance building types were the church, palazzo, and villa. Renaissance architecture flourished primarily in Italy fromonly spreading across the rest of Europe during the latter half of this period.
Devotion to the Gothic style caused the transition to Renaissance architecture outside of Italy to slow, causing much non-Italian Renaissance architecture to be a mix of Gothic verticality and Renaissance simplicity. France was the leading region of Renaissance architecture in northern Europe, with the primary building type being the chateau; the influence of French Renaissance architecture then spread across much of northern Europe.
Two leading Early Renaissance architects were Brunelleschi and Alberti. Filippo Brunelleschi, the first great Renaissance architect, was primarily a designer of churches. His most famous work is the octagonal brick dome of Florence Basilica.
This dome is not considered a Renaissance work, however; its style is firmly Gothic. The plain exterior of this building includes a series of blind arches, while the interior is graced with crisp grey-and-white planar classicism; only the columns prevent this interior from being composed entirely of flat surfaces.
Leon Battista Alberti became the most influential architectural theorist of the Early Renaissance with his own Ten Books on Architecture, which instructed on the adaptation of ancient classical forms to modern buildings.
In terms of actual building projects, Alberti was the leading pioneer of classical facade design. The High Renaissance witnessed the peak of classical simplicity and harmony in Renaissance architecture. The central plan layout was popular during this period.
Central plan denotes rotational symmetry; if the plan is rotated around its central point, it looks the same at multiple points of rotation. Common shapes for central plan buildings are the circle, square, and octagon.
The founder and leader of High Renaissance architecture was Donato Bramante. Despite its small size, the Tempietto is often considered the crowning work of High Renaissance architecture.
The High Renaissance also gave rise to the Palazzo Farnese, arguably the greatest Renaissance palace. This building, designed chiefly by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, follows the typical Renaissance palazzo layout: A Spartan majesty is achieved in the balanced height and breadth of the facade, the absence of vertical dividers, and the unadorned expanse of wall above each row of windows.
The sheer simplicity of the facade emphasizes variations in wall colors, window shapes, and pediment shapes. A popular decorative treatment of the palazzo was rustication, in which a masonry wall is textured rather than smooth. This can entail leaving grooves in the joints between smooth blocks, using roughly dressed blocks, or using blocks that have been deliberately textured.
The rustication of a palazzo is often differentiated between stories. The Late Renaissance featured a general relaxation of the severe simplicity and order of the High Renaissance.
The most radical strain of Late Renaissance art was mannerism: In mannerist architecture, classical forms are skewed, exaggerated, and misplaced, and classical balance and harmony are sometimes distorted. One such artist was Andrea Palladio, who maintained a firmly classical aesthetic.
Palladio, known primarily for villa design, was the foremost architect of the Late Renaissance, and arguably the most influential architect of all time. A true temple front is a portico; while a cosmetic temple front can be produced with a simple pediment.
In either case the entrance can be recessed, which allows for a covered entrance even without a portico. Firstly, the overall plan is a central block flanked with identical wings, which ensures perfect symmetry; the central block is faced with a temple front.Baroque Art and Architecture I INTRODUCTION Baroque Art and Architecture, Baroque, and Rococo Architecture Essay Traditional Architecture vs Modern Architecture Architects should be designing structures by incorporating vernacular styles into new technologies.
Baroque Architecture Characteristics Introduction. The Baroque period took the humanist Roman position of Renaissance architecture and showed it in a new rhetorical, theatrical and sculptural manner they expressed the victory of absolutist church and province.
Baroque Architecture A Style originating in late 16th Century Italy Consists of complex Architectural plan shapes, often based on the oval. Dynamic opposition and inter penetration of spaces were favored to highlighted the feeling of motion and sensuality.
of revival. These periods are often reflected through architecture as architects, developers, engineers, lay people and even the national governments seek to reflect history with the inclusion of modernity, meaning modern buildings with elements of tradition as well as all the modern .
The Baroque period took the humanist Roman view of Renaissance architecture and showed it in a new rhetorical, theatrical and sculptural fashion they expressed the triumph of absolutist church and state. The main view of Baroque architecture was more concerned about color, light and shade.
baroque Essay Baroque Art and Architecture I INTRODUCTION Baroque Art and Architecture, the style dominating the art and architecture of Europe and certain European colonies in the Americas throughout the s, and in some places, until