Yet his influence extends far beyond adult learning.
Other perspectives[ edit ] A number of critical responses to Mezirow's theory of transformative learning have emerged over the years.
Some studies support Mezirow.
Others conclude that Mezirow grants rational critical reflection too much importance. Taylor  has since suggested neurobiological research as a promising area that may offer some explanation about the role emotions play, closing the gap between rationality and emotion in the transformative learning process.
Taylor implies that, with available modern technology such as magnetic resonance imaging MRI and positron emission tomography PETthese once obscure factors can now be examined through determining which neurological brain systems are at work during disorienting dilemmas and the journey of recovery that follows.
This neurobiological research also stresses the importance of the role of implicit memoryfrom which emerge habits, attitudes and preferences that are related to unconscious thoughts and actions.
While the learning process is certainly rational on some levels, it is also a profound experience that can be described as a spiritual or emotional transformation as well. The experience of undoing racist, sexist, and other oppressive attitudes can be painful and emotional, as these attitudes have often been developed as ways to cope with and make sense of the world.
This type of learning requires taking risks, and a willingness to be vulnerable and have one's attitudes and assumptions challenged. Other theorists have proposed a view of transformative learning as an intuitive and emotional process.
Gordon Myers, and Rosemary R. Ruether link Mezirow's rational, cognitive and analytical approach to a more intuitive, creative and holistic view of transformative learning. For Boyd, transformation is a "fundamental change in one's personality involving [together] the resolution of a personal dilemma and the expansion of consciousness resulting in greater personality integration".
More recent research has specifically explored the process of transformative learning as it occurs in bereaved elders,  maintaining that the "disorienting dilemma" deemed necessary by Mezirow is present in the loss of a loved one, with an additional devastating factor being the isolation that the elderly in particular are likely to face.
Another study considers transformative learning in the context of suicide bereavement. Unlike Mezirow, who sees the ego as playing a central role in the process of perspective transformation, Boyd and Myers use a framework that moves beyond the ego and the emphasis on reason and logic to a definition of transformative learning that is more psychosocial in nature.
It is a shift of consciousness that dramatically and irreversibly alters our way of being in the world. Such a shift involves our understanding of ourselves and our self-locations; our relationships with other humans and with the natural world; our understanding of relations of power in interlocking structures of class, race and gender; our body awareness, our visions of alternative approaches to living; and our sense of possibilities for social justice and peace and personal joy.
Positing that understanding transformative learning may have been hindered by perspectives of rational thought and Western traditions, Kathleen P.
King   provides an alternate model grounded in a meta-analysis of research, the "Transformative Learning Opportunities Model".
Recent considerations of these varying perspectives seem to indicate that one perspective does not need to exclude the other. For example, Mezirow and Dirkx discussed their views on transformative learning at a International Transformative Learning Conference.
This dialogue, facilitated by Patricia Cranton, continued via email after the conference and the overview was published in the Journal of Transformative Education.Jack Mezirow Seven Phases Transformational Change Theory Transformational Learning Theory of Adult Education Introduction Transformational learning is a relatively new and thoroughly modern yet evolving learning theory, with timeless implications for the educator.
formative learning theory from the perspective of Jack Mezirow. Also discussed are the conditions that need to be present, from his nation for change in meaning structures that evolves in two do- following phases (Mezirow , p.
50): 1. A disorienting dilemma. formative learning theory from the perspective of Jack Mezirow. Also discussed are the conditions that need to be present, from his nation for change in meaning structures that evolves in two do- following phases (Mezirow , p.
A disorienting dilemma. Following Mezirow: A Roadmap through Transformative Learning.
Posted on October 8, This is perhaps one of the reasons why Jack Mezirow’s theories of Transformative Learning tend to be overlooked in the modern scope of training and education. Mezirow’s Transformational Learning. The Transformative Learning Theory was first articulated by Jack Mezirow of Columbia University after researching factors related to the success, or lack of, of womens’ reentry to community college programs in the 's, with the resulting conclusion that a key factor was perspective transformation.
The article begins with Mezirow's explanation of the stages of transformative learning, continues with the influences on the theory, transitions into the criticisms, and concludes with a discussion of its evolution and development.