By Geldarion Briefing Welcome to the war, comrades. You have been selected to receive the latest training and tactics fresh from the warfront. Today, we are going to make sure you are playing with your head as well as your weapons. This will be part 1 of a two-part series.
Modeling Human and Organizational Behavior: Application to Military Simulations. The National Academies Press.
Note also, however, the effective nondefinition proposed by Sarter and Woodswhich reflects the views Situation awareness a number of researchers in the field. Further expansion on these notions can be found in Flach From the breadth of the various definitions, it should be clear that situation awareness, as viewed by many researchers working in the area, is a considerably broader concept than that conventionally held by the military community.
The latter view tends to define situation awareness as merely 1 spatial awareness of the players self, blue forces, and red forcesand at that, often simply their static positions without regard to their movements.
It is also appropriate to point out the distinction between situation awareness and situation assessment. The former is essentially a state of knowledge; the latter is the process by which that knowledge is achieved. Unfortunately, the acronyms for both Situation awareness the same, adding somewhat to the confusion in the literature.
Despite of the numerous definitions for situation awareness, it is appropriate to note that "good situation awareness" in a tactical environment is regarded as critical to successful combat performance.
This is the case both for low-tempo planning activities, which tend to be dominated by relatively slow-paced and reflective proactive decisions, and high-tempo "battle drill" activities, which tend to be dominated by relatively fast-paced reactive decisions.
A number of studies of human behavior in low-tempo tactical planning have demonstrated how decision biases and poor situation awareness contribute to poor planning Tolcott et al. Certain types of failures are common, resulting in inadequate development and selection of courses of action.
In these studies, a number of dimensions relating specifically to situation assessment are prominent and distinguish expert from novice decision makers.
Maintenance of situation awareness also plays a key role in more high-tempo battlefield activities e. Several studies have focused on scenarios in which the decision maker must make dynamic decisions under "… conditions of time pressure, ambiguous information, 1 Use of the term "merely" is not meant to imply that achieving full military situation awareness is a trivial excercise.
Indeed it is not, as much of the military intelligence community is devoted to achieving this state. We do, however, suggest that definitions of situation awareness used frequently by the military be broadened along the lines identified by Endsley Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: These studies span the theoretical-to-applied spectrum and cover many domains.
Klein and colleagues Klein, ; Klein et al. At all these levels, situation assessment recognition in the RPD nomenclature plays a critical role, central to all subsequent decisions or actions.
One aspect of situation awareness, which has been referred to as crew awareness, is the extent to which the personnel involved have a common mental image of what is happening and an understanding of how others are perceiving the same situation.
The ideas of distributed cognition, shared mental models, and common frame of reference play a role in understanding how groups can be aware of a situation and thus act upon it. Research in distributed cognition Hutchins, ; Sperry, suggests that as groups solve problems, a group cognition emerges that enables the group to find a solution; however, that group cognition does not reside entirely within the mind of any one individual.
Research on shared mental models and common frames of reference suggests that over time, groups come to have a more common image of a problem, and this common image is more or less shared by all participants. What is not known is how much of a common image is needed to enhance performance and what knowledge or processes need to be held in common.
There is currently a great deal of interest in individual and team mental models Reger and Huff, ; Johnson-Laird, ; Klimoski and Mohammed, ; Eden et al. Common team or group mental models are arguably critical for team learning and performance Hutchins,a, b; Fiol, However, the relationship between individual and team mental models and the importance of shared cognition to team and organizational performance is a matter requiring extensive research.
Although many problems are currently solved by teams, little is known about the conditions for team success. Because of the critical role of situation awareness in air combat, the U. Numerous studies have been conducted to develop situation awareness models and metrics for air combat Stiffler, ; Spick, ; Harwood et al.
Situation awareness models can be grouped roughly into two classes: Descriptive Situation Awareness Models Most developed situation awareness models are descriptive. Endsley presents a descriptive model of situation awareness in a generic dynamic decision making environment, depicting the relevant factors and underlying mechanisms.
Among these factors, attention and working memory are considered the critical factors limiting effective situation awareness. Formulation of mental models and goal-directed behavior are hypothesized as important mechanisms for overcoming these limits.Read chapter 7 Situation Awareness: Simulations are widely used in the military for training personnel, analyzing proposed equipment, and rehearsing missi.
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Situation awareness can be defined as the crew’s knowledge of both the internal and external states of the aircraft, as well as the environment in which it is operating.
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